The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) system is a 2-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system providing locations on the surface of the Earth. UTM is a set of 60 transverse Mercator projections, normally based on the WGS-84 ellipsoid. Within each zone, coordinates are represented as eastings and northings, measures in metres; e.g. ‘31 N 448251 5411932’. This method based on Karney 2011 ‘Transverse Mercator with an accuracy of a few nanometers’, building on Krüger 1912 ‘Konforme Abbildung des Erdellipsoids in der Ebene’.